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- Medical English LInking keywords finder for the PubMed Zipped Archive (ELIZA) -

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298283 occurrences (No.79 in the rank) during 5 years in the PubMed. [cache]
24) Although further studies are required to understand the correlation between molecular responses and the ecological effects of pollutants on natural populations, the results provide new data about the biological responses to multiple-stressor environments.
--- ABSTRACT ---
PMID:23893657 DOI:10.1002/tox.21893
2015 Environmental toxicology
* Transcriptional responses, metabolic activity and mouthpart deformities in natural populations of Chironomus riparius larvae exposed to environmental pollutants.
- Biomarkers are an important tool in laboratory assays that link exposure or effect of specific toxicants to key molecular and cellular events, but they have not been widely used in invertebrate populations exposed to complex mixtures of environmental contaminants in their natural habitats. The present study focused on a battery of biomarkers and their comparative analysis in natural populations of the benthic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera), sampled in three differentially polluted rivers (the Con, Sar, and Louro in Galicia, Spain). In our study, some parameters were identified, such as hsp70 gene activity, GST enzymatic activity, total glycogen content and mouthpart deformities, which showed significant differences among populations from the three rivers that differed in the levels and types of sedimentary contaminants analyzed (metals, organic-chlorine pesticides, alkylphenols, pharmaceutical, and personal care products). In contrast to these sensitive biomarkers, other parameters showed no significant differences (hsc70 gene, EcR gene, P450 gene, RNA:DNA ratio, total protein content), and were stable even when comparing field and nonexposed laboratory populations. The hsp70 gene seems to be particularly sensitive to conditions of pollutant exposure, while its constitutive counterpart hsc70 showed invariable expression, suggesting that the hsc70/hsp70 ratio may be a potential indicator of polluted environments. Although further studies are required to understand the correlation between molecular responses and the ecological effects of pollutants on natural populations, the results provide new data about the biological responses to multiple-stressor environments. This field study adds new molecular endpoints, including gene expression, as suitable tools that, complementing other ecotoxicological parameters, may help to improve the methodologies of freshwater monitoring under the increasing burden of xenobiotics.
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[frequency of next (right) word to further]
(1)39 studies (16)4 developed (31)2 analyses (46)2 insights
(2)32 research (17)4 in (32)2 analyzed (47)2 monitoring
(3)18 investigation (18)4 supported (33)2 application (48)2 optimization
(4)18 study (19)3 *null* (34)2 as (49)2 prospective
(5)11 the (20)3 a (35)2 assessed (50)2 protection
(6)10 investigations (21)3 clinical (36)2 complications (51)2 spread
(7)8 analysis (22)3 evaluation (37)2 divided (52)2 suggests
(8)7 evidence (23)3 exploration (38)2 elucidate (53)2 supporting
(9)7 phylogenetic (24)3 explore (39)2 enhance (54)2 supports
(10)6 explored (25)3 for (40)2 episodes (55)2 taxonomic
(11)5 development (26)3 increased (41)2 evaluated (56)2 that
(12)5 support (27)3 investigate (42)2 examination (57)2 used
(13)5 validation (28)3 molecular (43)2 identification
(14)4 by (29)3 understand (44)2 improvement
(15)4 confirmed (30)2 advances (45)2 increase

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--- WordNet output for further --- =>1.さらにずっと, さらに先に, 一層遠く, その上, 更に, もっと遠い, なお一層の, さらに遠く, もっと先に, いっそうはるかに, さらにまた, さらになお(furthermore), 2.進める, 助成する, 促進する Overview of verb further The verb further has 2 senses (first 2 from tagged texts) 1. (7) foster, further -- (promote the growth of; "Foster our children's well-being and education") 2. (2) promote, advance, boost, further, encourage -- (contribute to the progress or growth of; "I am promoting the use of computers in the classroom") Overview of adj further The adj further has 1 sense (first 1 from tagged texts) 1. (2) further, farther -- (more distant in especially degree; "nothing could be further from the truth"; "further from our expectations"; "farther from the truth"; "farther from our expectations") Overview of adv further The adv further has 3 senses (first 3 from tagged texts) 1. (33) further, farther -- (to or at a greater extent or degree or a more advanced stage (`further' is used more often than `farther' in this abstract sense); "further complicated by uncertainty about the future"; "let's not discuss it further"; "nothing could be further from the truth"; "they are further along in their research than we expected"; "the application of the law was extended farther"; "he is going no farther in his studies") 2. (10) further -- (in addition or furthermore; "if we further suppose"; "stated further that he would not cooperate with them"; "they are definitely coming; further, they should be here already") 3. (1) farther, further -- (to or at a greater distance in time or space (`farther' is used more frequently than `further' in this physical sense); "farther north"; "moved farther away"; "farther down the corridor"; "the practice may go back still farther to the Druids"; "went only three miles further"; "further in the future") Overview of adv far The adv far has 5 senses (first 4 from tagged texts) 1. (61) far -- (to a considerable degree; very much; "a far far better thing that I do"; "felt far worse than yesterday"; "eyes far too close together") 2. (39) far -- (at or to or from a great distance in space; "he traveled far"; "strayed far from home"; "sat far away from each other") 3. (22) far -- (at or to a certain point or degree; "I can only go so far before I have to give up"; "how far can we get with this kind of argument?") 4. (3) far -- (remote in time; "if we could see far into the future"; "all that happened far in the past") 5. far -- (to an advanced stage or point; "a young man who will go very far") --- WordNet end ---