ELIZA cgi-bash version rev. 1.90
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298283 occurrences (No.79 in the rank) during 5 years in the PubMed. [cache]
286) COC were matured in vitro, inseminated, and presumptive zygotes cultured for a further 72 h post insemination before the percentage of COC that gave rise to zygotes and early embryo development was assessed.
--- ABSTRACT ---
PMID:23870192 DOI:10.1017/S0967199413000300
2015 Zygote (Cambridge, England)
* Effects of metformin on fertilisation of bovine oocytes and early embryo development: possible involvement of AMPK3-mediated TSC2 activation.
- Studies on bovine oocytes have revealed that the activation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) by millimolar concentrations of metformin controls nuclear maturation. Tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) has been identified as a downstream target of AMPK. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of low concentrations of metformin (1 nM to 10 μM) on the percentage of cultured cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) giving rise to cleavage-stage embryos and AMPK-mediated TSC2 activation. Metformin was supplemented either throughout in vitro embryo production (IVP) or only during in vitro fertilization (IVF). COC were matured in vitro, inseminated, and presumptive zygotes cultured for a further 72 h post insemination before the percentage of COC that gave rise to zygotes and early embryo development was assessed. The presence of TSC2 in bovine embryos and its possible AMPK-induced activation were assessed by immunocytochemistry. Metformin had a dose-dependent effect on the numbers of cultured COC that gave rise to embryos. Drug treatment either throughout IVP or only during IVF decreased the percentage of ≥ 8-cell embryos (1 μM, P < 0.05; 10 μM, P < 0.01; and 0.1 μM, 10 μM, P < 0.01, respectively) and increased the percentage of 2-cell embryos (10 μM, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 respectively). The percentage of cultured COC that gave rise to zygotes was not affected by metformin. TSC2 is expressed in early embryos. Metformin (10 μM) either throughout IVP or during IVF only, increased AMPK-induced PhosphoS1387-TSC2 immunoreactivity (P < 0.01) and this increase corresponded to the total TSC2 protein levels expressed in cells. Our results suggest that there is a dose-dependent negative effect of metformin on the ability of oocytes to cleave following insemination, possibly mediated through an AMPK-induced activation of TSC2.
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(1)39 studies (16)4 developed (31)2 analyses (46)2 insights
(2)32 research (17)4 in (32)2 analyzed (47)2 monitoring
(3)18 investigation (18)4 supported (33)2 application (48)2 optimization
(4)18 study (19)3 *null* (34)2 as (49)2 prospective
(5)11 the (20)3 a (35)2 assessed (50)2 protection
(6)10 investigations (21)3 clinical (36)2 complications (51)2 spread
(7)8 analysis (22)3 evaluation (37)2 divided (52)2 suggests
(8)7 evidence (23)3 exploration (38)2 elucidate (53)2 supporting
(9)7 phylogenetic (24)3 explore (39)2 enhance (54)2 supports
(10)6 explored (25)3 for (40)2 episodes (55)2 taxonomic
(11)5 development (26)3 increased (41)2 evaluated (56)2 that
(12)5 support (27)3 investigate (42)2 examination (57)2 used
(13)5 validation (28)3 molecular (43)2 identification
(14)4 by (29)3 understand (44)2 improvement
(15)4 confirmed (30)2 advances (45)2 increase

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--- WordNet output for further --- =>1.さらにずっと, さらに先に, 一層遠く, その上, 更に, もっと遠い, なお一層の, さらに遠く, もっと先に, いっそうはるかに, さらにまた, さらになお(furthermore), 2.進める, 助成する, 促進する Overview of verb further The verb further has 2 senses (first 2 from tagged texts) 1. (7) foster, further -- (promote the growth of; "Foster our children's well-being and education") 2. (2) promote, advance, boost, further, encourage -- (contribute to the progress or growth of; "I am promoting the use of computers in the classroom") Overview of adj further The adj further has 1 sense (first 1 from tagged texts) 1. (2) further, farther -- (more distant in especially degree; "nothing could be further from the truth"; "further from our expectations"; "farther from the truth"; "farther from our expectations") Overview of adv further The adv further has 3 senses (first 3 from tagged texts) 1. (33) further, farther -- (to or at a greater extent or degree or a more advanced stage (`further' is used more often than `farther' in this abstract sense); "further complicated by uncertainty about the future"; "let's not discuss it further"; "nothing could be further from the truth"; "they are further along in their research than we expected"; "the application of the law was extended farther"; "he is going no farther in his studies") 2. (10) further -- (in addition or furthermore; "if we further suppose"; "stated further that he would not cooperate with them"; "they are definitely coming; further, they should be here already") 3. (1) farther, further -- (to or at a greater distance in time or space (`farther' is used more frequently than `further' in this physical sense); "farther north"; "moved farther away"; "farther down the corridor"; "the practice may go back still farther to the Druids"; "went only three miles further"; "further in the future") Overview of adv far The adv far has 5 senses (first 4 from tagged texts) 1. (61) far -- (to a considerable degree; very much; "a far far better thing that I do"; "felt far worse than yesterday"; "eyes far too close together") 2. (39) far -- (at or to or from a great distance in space; "he traveled far"; "strayed far from home"; "sat far away from each other") 3. (22) far -- (at or to a certain point or degree; "I can only go so far before I have to give up"; "how far can we get with this kind of argument?") 4. (3) far -- (remote in time; "if we could see far into the future"; "all that happened far in the past") 5. far -- (to an advanced stage or point; "a young man who will go very far") --- WordNet end ---