ELIZA cgi-bash version rev. 1.90
- Medical English LInking keywords finder for the PubMed Zipped Archive (ELIZA) -

return kwic search for risk out of >500 occurrences
421954 occurrences (No.40 in the rank) during 5 years in the PubMed. [cache]
277) In this paper, we argue that now that research in these groups is expected to expand, this undifferentiated minimal risk and burden requirement does not suffice any more.
--- ABSTRACT ---
PMID:24014633 DOI:10.1136/medethics-2013-101496
2015 Journal of medical ethics
* Improving the Helsinki Declaration's guidance on research in incompetent subjects.
- Research involving children or other incompetent subjects who are deemed unable to provide informed consent is complex, particularly in the case of research that does not directly benefit the research subjects themselves. The Helsinki Declaration, the World Medical Association's landmark document for research ethics, therefore states that incompetent research subjects must not be included in such research unless it entails only minimal risk and minimal burden. In this paper, we argue that now that research in these groups is expected to expand, this undifferentiated minimal risk and burden requirement does not suffice any more. In the upcoming revision of the Declaration, the paragraph at stake should be refined in such a way that it is not unnecessarily restrictive or more permissive than can be ethically justified. Our first recommendation is to stimulate research ethics committees to identify more accurately those risks and burdens that the research subjects must undergo solely for research purposes by distinguishing between two types of study procedures instead of between two types of studies. Our second recommendation is to allow for exceptions to the minimal risk and burden requirement in cases of exceptionally valuable studies that involve subjects who can give their assent to participate in the study and that involve at most a minor increase over minimal risk and/or burden.
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(1)138 of (9)9 in (17)4 factors, (25)2 managers
(2)72 factors (10)7 group (18)4 stratification (26)2 mortality
(3)40 for (11)6 ratio (19)4 was (27)2 perception
(4)24 factor (12)5 behavior (20)3 groups (28)2 rates
(5)23 and (13)5 is (21)3 infants (29)2 the
(6)16 *null* (14)5 patients (22)2 among
(7)13 assessment (15)5 to (23)2 during
(8)10 score (16)4 areas (24)2 estimators

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--- WordNet output for risk --- =>1.損害の恐れ, 危険, 冒険, リスク, 2.危険にさらす, 3.敢えてする, 被保険者, 被保険物, 危険にさらす, 賭けてみる Overview of noun risk The noun risk has 4 senses (first 2 from tagged texts) 1. (4) hazard, jeopardy, peril, risk, endangerment -- (a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune; "drinking alcohol is a health hazard") 2. (2) risk, peril, danger -- (a venture undertaken without regard to possible loss or injury; "he saw the rewards but not the risks of crime"; "there was a danger he would do the wrong thing") 3. risk, risk of infection -- (the probability of becoming infected given that exposure to an infectious agent has occurred) 4. risk, risk of exposure -- (the probability of being exposed to an infectious agent) Overview of verb risk The verb risk has 2 senses (first 2 from tagged texts) 1. (8) risk, put on the line, lay on the line -- (expose to a chance of loss or damage; "We risked losing a lot of money in this venture"; "Why risk your life?"; "She laid her job on the line when she told the boss that he was wrong") 2. (2) gamble, chance, risk, hazard, take chances, adventure, run a risk, take a chance -- (take a risk in the hope of a favorable outcome; "When you buy these stocks you are gambling") --- WordNet end ---