ELIZA cgi-bash version rev. 1.90
- Medical English LInking keywords finder for the PubMed Zipped Archive (ELIZA) -

return kwic search for risk out of >500 occurrences
421954 occurrences (No.40 in the rank) during 5 years in the PubMed. [cache]
430) Our results demonstrate the causal involvement of both the pPAR and vmPFC in risk-sensitive choice and indicate distinguishable roles of these areas in probability processing and risk appetite.
--- ABSTRACT ---
PMID:23926113 DOI:10.1093/cercor/bht197
2015 Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)
* Risk-sensitive decision-making in patients with posterior parietal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex injury.
- Successful choice under risk requires the integration of information about outcome probabilities and values and implicates a brain network including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (pPAR). Damage to the vmPFC is linked to poor decision-making and increased risk-taking. Electrophysiological and neuroimaging data implicate the pPAR in the processing of reward probability during choice, but the causal contribution of this area has not been established. We compared patients with lesions to the pPAR (n = 13), vmPFC (n = 13), and healthy volunteers (n = 22) on the Roulette Betting Task, a measure of risk-sensitive decision-making. Both lesion groups were impaired in adjusting their bets to the probability of winning. This impairment was correlated with the extent of pPAR, but not vmPFC, damage. In addition, the vmPFC group chose higher bets than healthy controls overall, an effect that correlated with lesion volume in the medial orbitofrontal cortex. Both lesion groups earned fewer points than healthy controls. The groups did not differ on 2 tasks assessing probabilistic reasoning outside of a risk-reward context. Our results demonstrate the causal involvement of both the pPAR and vmPFC in risk-sensitive choice and indicate distinguishable roles of these areas in probability processing and risk appetite.
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(1)138 of (9)9 in (17)4 factors, (25)2 managers
(2)72 factors (10)7 group (18)4 stratification (26)2 mortality
(3)40 for (11)6 ratio (19)4 was (27)2 perception
(4)24 factor (12)5 behavior (20)3 groups (28)2 rates
(5)23 and (13)5 is (21)3 infants (29)2 the
(6)16 *null* (14)5 patients (22)2 among
(7)13 assessment (15)5 to (23)2 during
(8)10 score (16)4 areas (24)2 estimators

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--- WordNet output for risk --- =>1.損害の恐れ, 危険, 冒険, リスク, 2.危険にさらす, 3.敢えてする, 被保険者, 被保険物, 危険にさらす, 賭けてみる Overview of noun risk The noun risk has 4 senses (first 2 from tagged texts) 1. (4) hazard, jeopardy, peril, risk, endangerment -- (a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune; "drinking alcohol is a health hazard") 2. (2) risk, peril, danger -- (a venture undertaken without regard to possible loss or injury; "he saw the rewards but not the risks of crime"; "there was a danger he would do the wrong thing") 3. risk, risk of infection -- (the probability of becoming infected given that exposure to an infectious agent has occurred) 4. risk, risk of exposure -- (the probability of being exposed to an infectious agent) Overview of verb risk The verb risk has 2 senses (first 2 from tagged texts) 1. (8) risk, put on the line, lay on the line -- (expose to a chance of loss or damage; "We risked losing a lot of money in this venture"; "Why risk your life?"; "She laid her job on the line when she told the boss that he was wrong") 2. (2) gamble, chance, risk, hazard, take chances, adventure, run a risk, take a chance -- (take a risk in the hope of a favorable outcome; "When you buy these stocks you are gambling") --- WordNet end ---